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As a local rival, Bologna are the biggest rival for Parma in Serie A. However, their bitterest rival overall is Reggiana, due to traditional rivalry between Parma and Reggio Emilia. Most of other rival clubs come from the same region, but none of them play in Serie A. Those clubs are Modena, Piacenza, Cremonese and Carrarese. Juventus are considered as a great rival as well, because of their past battles for trophies. During the late 1990s, Parma were a formidable force in Italy and they won all titles in that period. It is interesting that they shared the pitch with Juventus in six out of 14 major finals they participated in, including the international UEFA Cup. Parma has friendly relationship with two major Italian clubs, Empoli and Sampdoria.
Parma were founded in 1919, but they spent almost their entire history playing lower-tier football. In the 1990s, under mighty sponsor Parmalat, Parma emerged as one of the top clubs in Italy. The fans of other, traditionally more successful clubs in Serie A didn't like their rise, and they called them "artificial" and "instant" club. Parma achieved promotion in 1991 and between 1992 and 2002 they won all their trophies up to date - three Italian Cups, one Italian Super Cup, two UEFA Cups, European Super Cup and UEFA Cup Winners' Cup. They have never won the Scudetto, but they finished as runners-up in 1996/97 season, only two points behind Juventus. After 2002, Parma endured financial difficulties and underwent bankruptcy twice. In the end of 2014/15 season, Parma was demoted to Serie D, but they returned to Serie A in only three years. They became the first Italian club to achieve three consecutive promotions and into the Serie A.